Wednesday, March 08, 2006

can we talk?

If you look down near the bottom of my sidebar you'll see a link to the Bilingual/Bicultural Family Network in Seattle. They recently asked permission to link to my blog because my husband and I are raising our two boys bilingually. Or at least we say we are. But where's the evidence? Can those boys really speak two languages fluently? Well, yes, they can, and I'm going to tell you all about it, now being as good a time as any especially since some people may actually be following the link and coming here only to find that I've been going on (and on!) about everything under the sun except bilingual education.

It was clear to us that we wanted to start raising our children bilingually as soon as they were born, and the method that made the most sense for our family was the so-called OPOL (one parent/person, one language) strategy, in which each parent consistently speaks his or her (usually native) language to the child no matter where they are or who is present. That's the way we chose to do it and it has worked well for us, but of course there are many variations on the theme and we're not saying that this method is suitable for everyone.

Boy13 was born in 1993 but we didn't get a computer until 1998 so I was pretty much on my own in regards to resources and methodology. My first exposure to parents who were successfully raising bilingual children was through the Bilingual Family Newsletter , which I still subscribe to today, and through a book, Zweisprachige Kindererziehung (raising children bilingually), given to us by friends when they found out we were expecting our first child. Although the book dealt with a French/German family in Germany and did not exactly mirror our situation, I found that it gave me the confidence to go on and disproved a lot of myths surrounding bilingual children.

So I spoke the minority language (ml), English, to our new baby wherever we were, and Mr. M spoke to him in German, the majority language (ML). Mr M and I continued to speak to each other in German, as we had done since I moved to Germany (you know, when in Rome...).

One common myth is that bilingual children will almost always be late talkers being that they are exposed to two languages at the same time and (supposedly) can't process all the information as fast as a monolingual child. Well, I say that if a child raised bilingually does indeed seem to have a language delay (and most parents start to panic much too early) it most likely has another cause and should not be a reason to give up the two languages.

Boy13 started saying his first words at about 13 months, mostly words that sounded similar in English and German - ball/Ball, banana/Banane, no/nein - but it was clear even then that he knew the difference and had figured out that what came out of Mummy's mouth was different than what he heard from Papa.

He started speaking two-word sentences in both languages at about 18 months and by 24 months could string together many more words. On his 2nd birthday we have a video of him sitting in his highchair with a little cake in front of him and saying, "______ blow out da candle! More blowing, Mummy?" Funniest thing you ever saw.

His German pediatrician, who (like much of the medical profession) obviously knew very little about bilingualism, kept assuming that because I spoke to Boy13 in English only, that that was the only language he spoke or understood. When it came time to check his German language development at the 2-yr-old check up, I was very relieved when the little guy looked out the window, pointed to the sky and yelled "Ahh, da kommt die Sonne schon wieder!" ("The sun's coming out again!") Phew. Another myth busted.

A further misconception is that children will get confused when they hear two different languages being spoken within the same family and will have trouble switching back and forth. I can't agree with that at all. I think consistency is the key here. If the child has no idea which language is going to come out of a parent's mouth on any given day, well, yes, that could become confusing. If the child knows that the same parent is going to speak the same language day in and day out there's really not a problem. Of course my children know that I speak German fluently, they hear me speaking it to my husband the rest of Germany all the time, but they also know that English is 'our' language and that I expect them to use it with me at all times. Sounds like a case of 'tough love', but believe me, it worked for us and was in no way detrimental to the boys' development.

There are a lot of things to worry about and fuss over when you're thinking about raising your children bilingually, but our policy has always been "stop worrying and just do it, already".

To be continued at a later date...


At March 08, 2006 2:41 p.m., Blogger Sandra said...

Very interesting, thanks! Learning two languages from birth is such a huge advantage for any person, it's amazing to me that there's any controversy about it at all. Unfortunately, my kids only know English.

I agree that consistency is key. On those occasions my husband would try to speak to the kids in Arabic, they were extremely resistant, because it was too unfamiliar to them. Much better to start it from birth and be consistent.

At March 08, 2006 3:30 p.m., Blogger Ms Mac said...

I can't agree more with what you say. Although we haven't raised our boys bilingually, being that we arrived here much too late for that, and that the Mr. and I are crap at German, they seem to be doing really well, speaking German to all and sundry out of the house and English with their family.

You'd be surprised (or maybe not, actually) at how many Swiss are surprised that we don't speak German at home!

At March 08, 2006 3:56 p.m., Blogger Léons Life said...

We’re bringing out son up in French/English household, but are far less disciplined than you. We speak a mixture of the two languages, no one sticks to the same and we often say a sentence half in one language and then finish it off in the other. We are totally un-disciplined.

Like you I had a lot of people that told me he would start speaking late, mix the two up, school would be difficult etc…but this is just not the case, in our house anyway ! Children have a fantastic ability to learn and learn and learn ….

It does help that Leon spends a lot of time in the UK with my parents, there he has to speak English or he’d starve.

Otherwise I think it’s a good idea to reading /watch DVDs etc.. in the less prominent language.

Even so Leon is totally bilingual and even pronounces the same things differently in two languages. Eg. Harry Potter in English and a sot of Arry Pottur in French.

I have a question for you Christina. Are either of your children learning a third language at school yet ? If so what ?

Secondly if they are learning English at school, what does the teacher do with them, as I presume that they are way ahead of their little friends.

At March 08, 2006 4:10 p.m., Blogger christina said...

Hi Pauline - I think you have to just use whatever method works best for you. I found it easier to stick to one language but others like to mix and it still works out just fine. I don't think there's any right or wrong way as long as the child is learning both languages effectively. I think it was also important for me to speak English only because I am, or was, their only source of the language - no English speaking relatives or friends around to reinforce it so every word had to count.

Yes, spending time with the English speaking relatives is SO good for everyone- you're really lucky there that Leon gets so much exposure. Our kids only get to do that every two years but it has still been wonderful for them. We have tons of English books, DVDs, computer games too. I'm going to go into all that in a later post.

Boy13(7th class) is taking French in school and he is so-so at it. English is compulsory and then they can choose between French or Latin starting in the 6th class. He'll be taking Latin in the 10th, I believe. Some schools offer Spanish instead of French.

German schools start English in the 3rd class now (about 8 years old) and they just follow along and help the teacher a bit sometimes. They don't seem to get bored at all and enjoy being the centre of attention sometimes, I think. They're way ahead in speaking but not always in spelling so there's always something to learn. And they have to learn the funny British English vocabulary that they don't learn from me. :-)

At March 08, 2006 5:03 p.m., Blogger Expat Traveler said...

Christina, I've always known I wanted to bring up my kids bi-lingual, even before I met someone. I haven't talked to P too much about this, but I already know I want him to speak French to the kids (assuming we eventually have some).

What I've learned about languages is that if you learn 2 languages at a young age, your brain processes languages differently than if you only learn 1 for the first say 20 years of your life. If you continue to learn and speak at least 2 languages, picking up a 3rd should be like clockwork. That is why so many people can learn multiple languages after being bilingual.

I only wished I could have been pushed more and well P and I both know we should speak only in French here since it's the only way I can keep up with it (as I want to). It basically backs up why we should be speaking it with why you spoke English always to your boys.

I'm definitely all for it because I think knowing more languages can always come in handy.

At March 08, 2006 5:41 p.m., Blogger Ginnie said...

As a linguist by background, this totally fascinates me. I never studied this aspect at all but find what you all are saying makes perfect sense. We all would do "better" if we spoke more than one language, as far as I'm concerned, if for no other reason than to be a World Citizen! Spanish is my second language. I wish it were German!! Maybe in time?!

At March 08, 2006 5:51 p.m., Blogger Haddock said...

I agree with everything you say Christina. As you know our daughter is bi-lingual as well. A speech therapist friend of ours suggested the one parent/one language way of raising a child and we have had no problems whatsoever.

We speak English as the main language at home (when in Rome, speak English *hee hee*). If I due use my rudimentary German, my daughter quite tells me off and tells me to speak English.

I definately agree with your last paragraph. Don't worry just do it. :)

At March 08, 2006 6:14 p.m., Anonymous mar said...

Very interesting, Christina. I didn't know about the ml/ML method. My German husband and I(Spanish speaking) met in English...neutral language. Therefore languages have always been important to us. Our son was born when we lived in northern Germany not knowing we would move to Spain. We both spoke Spanish to him and so were his first words. Then he went to a Kinderkrippe and Kindergarten and he wouldn't speak Spanish anymore: he would answer in German so we knew he understood everything. But didn't want to be "different". When we moved to Spain we changed to German as home language, although I kept(keep) speaking Spanish to my son when we were alone. Now it is like Leon described it : a mixture of words when the Spanish or Catalan word is more appropiate. The kids graduating from the Deutsche Schule here are all fluent in at least 4 languages and we often hear European executives need at least 5! so there is still a language to learn next.

At March 08, 2006 6:38 p.m., Blogger Kitty said...

I came across your page by chance but this is a subject very close to my heart.

My twins were brought up in the same way that you are bringing up your son. I am a predominantly French speaking Swiss and my partner at the time was English and we were living in London. I always spoke to the twins in French and still do. They went to a French primary school in London but spoke English to my partner. I moved out of London when they were 11 and they had no trouble switching to an English speaking school. They are both now at University in England and speak both French and English fluently without an accent. The only issue they struggle with is that of nationality. I think they suffer from a lack of belonging to either country.

I have since inherited my sister's children who were entirely French speaking and only moved to England after my sister died. The youngest were 6 and 9 at the time and their English is now fine with a neglible accent but the eldest, who was 12 has really struggled. With them I had speak English at home initially to try to bring them up to speed.

But I'm waffling on.

I thought your page was really interesting and it's good to know that so many people are bringing their children up bilingually.

At March 08, 2006 6:40 p.m., Blogger Crystal said...

Fascinating how the human mind is capable of picking up multiple tongues during those early years. My husband was spoken to only in Hungarian at home, so he went to school without knowing any Serbian yet was able to pick it up on his own. We hope to raise our kids bilingual and I think the OPOL method sounds good, consistency sounds key. Thanks for exploring this topic!

At March 08, 2006 7:26 p.m., Blogger Samantha said...

Very interesting post (and comments)...I don't have any children yet, but when I do, I'm hoping they'll grow up bilingual. We are planning on trying to use the one-parent, one language method too.

At March 08, 2006 8:34 p.m., Blogger christina said...

Sandra - It's harder with older kids because they're so much more self conscious and think anything different is weird. But it's great that your husband has tried to teach them a bit of his language. They might want to pick it up later when they're older.

ms mac - Excellent that your boys are doing so well. I think they pick up the ML so easily when they're just dumped into the middle of it, going to school and making friends. And the Swiss are always good for a suprise, aren't they? :-)

Expat - If you and P did start speaking French again now, you could both speak to your future children in French, at least at home and let the outside world take care of English. You're lucky since Vancouver has quite a few French immersion schools which I have heard are pretty good.

Ginnie - Oh yes, I'm very keen on my kids being World Citizens but I'm really doing this for more selfish reasons - I want to pass my native language and culture on to them as best I can because it means a lot to me. But of course speaking other languages also gives you an awareness you wouldn't have as a monolingual. I'm sure you've noticed that with Spanish. And why not make German your third language? It's never too late!

Haddock - Juniorette's language development is really so amazing. She's a clever little girl. We probably would have done "English at home" as well had my husband's English been as good as Mrs. Haddock's, but I think Mr M would have felt uncomfortable and it would have been a struggle for him so we went with one person, one language.

Mar - Well in your case we're talking multilingual and not just bilingual so I think you have to adjust things to fit your family, especially if you move around a lot. And many children do eventually resist speaking the ml because they don't like to feel different or singled out and that can be difficult. But you've given your son such a valuable gift in offering him all these languages to choose from.

le chat - Hi and thanks for visiting! What an interesting story you have, bringing up two sets of children at different times. Yes, the lack of identity or the feeling of not belonging can be hard, especially with teenagers and young adults, I think. I may do a post on that later.

Crystal - There's such a window of opportunity when they're so young that it's a shame to not offer them the chance of learning multiple languages if at all possible. Of course one can learn at any age, but children have it so much easier. You guys would be great candidates for OPOL.

Samantha - The good thing is that nothing is set in stone. You can try one way, and if it's really not working, you can do something else. A lot depends on which languages the parents speak, if they can understand each other's native language and how much support there is from outside.

At March 08, 2006 9:34 p.m., Blogger J said...

Very interesting, Christina. A quick question...what about when you and Mr M have to discipline the boys together? Do you do it in English and he does it in German in the same conversation? Just wondering since Mr M's English isn't very good.

At March 08, 2006 9:50 p.m., Blogger christina said...

J - Well, we usually just smack them upside the head without saying a word. :-)

No, actually we still each speak our own language to the kids in the same conversation. Mr M doesn't speak any English at all to them. His English is OK - he can go out alone when we're on holiday and get along just fine, but I don't think he'd be able to keep up with all the kids stuff and speak to them in English on a regular basis.

At March 09, 2006 12:28 a.m., Blogger Dixie said...

Christina I love how you've explained all of this. I have always heard the OPOL method was the easiest and most efficient way of getting your children to be bilingual and you seem to prove that out. My friend in Erfurt does the same with her two boys (they're toddlers) and she's had success as well.

At March 09, 2006 1:00 a.m., Blogger Andrea said...

I am so getting my husband to translate this for his annoying mother. If I hear "she is going to be soooo confused!!" one more time I am going to FREAK!
MY daughter is exposed to three languages - me english, dad chinese, daycare, Japanese. She speaks japanese, spoke her first english words the other day and can say many chinese sounds. She recently has started saying XieXie all the time. Cant get her to say thankyou in Japanese though lol!!!
Like you said, consistancy is the key!

At March 09, 2006 2:02 a.m., Blogger Cathy said...

Thank you so much for this excellent post; I read it with fascination. My father is German and my mother is English, and I learned German later on but learned it with relative ease because my father spoke German so often with my grandparents in my presence growing up that it came quite natural to me. It sounds like you have done a great job, in part because you followed your good instincts and didn't stress out too much about it.

I am curious; do you still speak strictly English with them?

At March 09, 2006 7:41 a.m., Blogger Karen said...

What an absolutely interesting post! I always wondered how that worked - small children simultaneously learning two languages.

At March 09, 2006 8:42 a.m., Blogger Elemmaciltur said...

Wow, that's absolutely fascinating for me as a multilingual person.

So, do you still speak with your boys in English? Or do you also now occasionally switch to German?

At March 09, 2006 11:28 a.m., Blogger EuroTrippen said...

That's absolutely fascinating. I can only imagine that your sons would absorb other languages quickly as well. If it's true that we only use a fraction of our brain's awesome computing power, then imagine the jump-start you gave your sons by teaching them to think of things in two different ways at such a young age.

Makes me wish I'd come from a bilingual family.

At March 09, 2006 3:14 p.m., Blogger christina said...

Dixie OPOL seems to work for a lot of people, depending on what their language situation is like. It just seemed like the path of least resistance for us.

Andrea I'm on bilingual family mailing lists where some kids are learning three languages with ease and Ji should have no problem at all. Concerned grandparents can really be a problem sometimes. :-)

Cathy - Same with me - Austrian father, Canadian mother and although our dad didn't really speak German directly to us (how I wish he had, but he had his reservations about it, I think) we always heard him talking to grandparents and German friends so we (well, I, anyway, my brothers can't speak German at all!) found it easy to learn, already knowing the rhythm and structure of the language.

And yes, I do speak English only to them, except when I have to help with German homework and such, but then it's usually reading something aloud or telling them the right answer so I'm sort of talking at them rather than with them, if that makes any sense.

Karen I had assumed you were also brought up bilingually. Which language did you learn first?

Elemm Did you learn all your languages as a teen/young adult or were you also brought up bilingually?

As I told Cathy, I would never speak a whole sentence to them in German or hold a conversation, and I don't respond if they speak to me in German. But if I have to explain something for school I might use a German word or two.

Eurotrippen Well, I think the sooner the better, but we can learn languages at any age, and your kids will pick up German too, probably faster than you can believe.

At March 09, 2006 5:07 p.m., Blogger The SeaWitch said...

My son is also fluently bilingual in both Greek and English but here's the kicker...we never had a method. Up until now, I didn't even know there were methods for raising bilingual children. Maybe I invented my own method...for every book I bought in Greek, the next book I'd buy in English. His Harry Potter, Narnia and Lemony Snicket collections are half in English and half in Greek. My husband and I speak to him in whatever language comes out of our mouths and he responds in whichever language he feels like. Although, when he was 4 years old he started inventing words by adding greek endings to english words. But that only lasted a few months and now, he speaks and writes both languages with rarely any grammatical or spelling errors. I think that has more to do with his reading though.

At March 09, 2006 5:18 p.m., Blogger traveller one said...

Hi Christina! Thanks for your 'welcome back' comment :)
I have tried to see my parents at least once a year since I moved abroad, but it's not always possible, and it's really never enough. Do you have a webcam and mike? I use mine everyday to keep close to my Mom and Dad. And believe me- they can learn how to use the equipment! Hugs, Kim

At March 09, 2006 6:07 p.m., Blogger Angie said...

This is a really fascinating topic!

I have often thought that I want to bring up my kids with at least the basic knowledge of Spanish. It would have worked out better if I would have stuck with Pedro, but alas, my (much-loved) American boyfriend's foreign language skills are a few (mostly dirty) German words he remembers from high school classes.

Even so -- I might teach them Spanish myself, but I'm worried that I will pass along my terrible accent and bad grammar!

My cousin's wife speaks Latin and she taught their daughter the parts of the body in Latin (and Spanish, which is quite appropriate because they live in Tucson, Arizona). It was so amazing -- you could point to your nose, and, at less than 3 years old, she could say "nose" in English, Spanish, and Latin.

Anyway... I suppose I have better things to worry about since I don't plan on having kids for QUITE some time yet!

At March 09, 2006 6:07 p.m., Blogger CanadianSwiss said...

I think it's a great thing. Just do it. I was raised in french, had English playmates, my grandmother who live with us then, spoke only German and best of all, in high-school, I could take any subject in etiher english or french. So go for it! There s not wrong way.

At March 09, 2006 6:12 p.m., Blogger Expat Traveler said...

christina - thanks for the advise. Now I've just gotta get my mind set to only speak in French! I'm sure it was sort of like how you were feeling when you came to Germany, except P doesn't speak french too often anymore. All the better to make suure we don't loose it I guess!

At March 09, 2006 11:08 p.m., Anonymous Franzie said...

It's wonderful to see such a discussion going on this whole topic,as I'm also EXTREMELY intersted in it.
We are only at the beginning of our bilingual childrearing. Our daughters are only 26 mths and 6 mths old. We've tried to make German our home language, though my husband and I do speak English with each other and he tries to stay one step ahead of our eldest daughter with his German. We'll have to see how long that'll be working.
So far it's been working really well though and she has not even been language delayed. As you said, Christina, I did expect her to be a little slower with her language. Similarly to you I've been doing it more so for my own reasons as it's very important to me to pass my language and culture on to our children. And funnily enough my husband has wanted to speak German with the children also for rather selfish reasons (cause he is the English-speaking parent), but he saw this as a good opportunity to practise his own German.
I'd be very interested to hear further stories on your bilingual journey.

At March 10, 2006 12:32 a.m., Blogger Mr. Fabulous said...

I would SO like be able to speak a second language. Unfortunately I have absolutely no talent for them. I've tried. It's hopeless...

At March 10, 2006 3:46 p.m., Blogger lettuce said...

i so much admire all you bi-lingual multi-cultural families, your kids will have such an advantage - well done!!

At March 10, 2006 5:41 p.m., Blogger Elemmaciltur said...

@Christina: No, I was always...errrr...unilingual (??). Learned English in school in Thailand and started German when I was in New Zealand.

I started to learn French with a self-learning course when I got here in Germany. Got through the course and went to participate in the free courses at the university. Started out at level one, by the end of the lesson I was so bored to death. The teacher called me up and asked me what the heck I was doing in her level 1 class and sent me to her level 4 class (there were 5 levels altogether). I ended up picking up the self-learning courses for Italian and Spanish and also attended the classes at uni, where I again was put up in higher classes.

So, those are the main six languages (Thai, English, German, French, Italian and Spanish) I'm more or less fluent in. There are also other languages I took at university which come and go depending on how intensive I need it and look into it at the time...and those are: Russian and Polish.

Plus, I noticed that I pick up languages very fast now and could just get myself a small booklet for travellers that explained a bit of grammatical structures and some vocabs to get me going. And now I more or less can also use: Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian. I've also tried dipping into Czech/Slowak and High Arabic, but they were just too much.

Right now I'm working on Mandarin...and lastly: vi jam scias ke mi povas paroli esperanton! ;)

At March 11, 2006 12:04 a.m., Blogger GC PHILO said...

Wow, what an informative read. I was raised bilingually too (both my parents are Greek Immigrants to the States) but the way it happened to me is that I never even heard English unless I turned on the TV or went to school! But the end result was the same, bilingualism and no learning difficulties compared to other kids as the popular myth goes...

At March 11, 2006 2:28 a.m., Blogger Betty said...

You are so impressive and wonderful! On raising my own son, I decided to not worry about the things I couldn't teach him (sports) and concentrate on those I could (scholarship) and it has been the right decision. I coulda forced him to go out and throw a ball with me but since I can't catch, I was seeing myself running after the ball over and over. I remember that before he was born and was determined healthy, he was called "a good baby." It was strange then. But now he's a good teenager.

At March 11, 2006 8:00 a.m., Blogger Just another American Expat said...

We raised ours to be bilingual too. Never read any books on the subject though. Our method was the “You speak German, I speak English” technique. And by golly it worked!

You are absolutely right about the misconception of children being confused by two languages. A child at a very early age, when exposed to two languages, will pick them up naturally. The only curious twist concerning my two sons is that, while older son regularly conversed in English with me, my younger insisted on speaking German which led to strange conversations if you were an outsider with big ears. This went on until we both flew to the States together last summer. I told him then that he must speak English: he did, and he hasn’t stopped. All this time he was holding out on me, and he even speaks with an American accent!

At March 11, 2006 3:36 p.m., Blogger Calamity Tat said...

Happy burpday to your little man:-)

At March 11, 2006 5:27 p.m., Anonymous Pumpkin said...

Thank you for your post. I have actually followed that link to the bilingual family site before from your blog. I have three children that I am raising in a biling environment. I speak in English and my husband speaks in French to the children. He and I speak in English together even though we live in France because it is easier. However, as my French improves we are talking more and more in French together. My oldest daughter combined the languages alot in the beginning...French and English in one sentence but now she is separating the two. She has trouble at the maternel speaking with other children and is very quiet. I think she may be shy like me but I worried it was that she is not as strong in French as the other children. I think in time she will grow out of her shyness and be fluent in both French and English. When I hear stories like yours I feel better about our little biling family. Thank you.

At March 11, 2006 11:25 p.m., Anonymous megan said...

interesting one to file away...for a much MUCh later date.

At March 12, 2006 5:13 a.m., Blogger Tim Rice said...

Hey, I admire you and your husband for raising your children to be bilingual from the birth. That's probably the best way to learn more than one language.

At March 12, 2006 7:43 a.m., Blogger Nyana said...

i don't understand the hype behind this. my parents brought up 2 kids who were trilingual before the age of 5. for us, it was just the way things were and we had to move with it to keep up.

the fact is, kids are pretty fast and flexible entities and they manage just fine no matter what you throw at them.
it's the adults imposing their own difficulties that make a case out of anything :) and that's just how the world is... good one christina, you're very responsible.

At March 12, 2006 10:55 a.m., Blogger The Big Finn said...

I always spoke Finnish with my father (still do) and English with my mother. Speaking in Finnish with my mother was only reserved for times in public when we wanted to say things about other people without them understanding us.
Even though speaking Finnish doesn't really benefit me that much since nobody else in the world speaks it and pretty much everybody in Finland speaks English anyway, it has helped give me a much greater cultural sense of being Finnish than I would have by just having a Finnish last name and only speaking English.
I can't really explain it, but I feel like I'm more Finnish than Canadian or American, even though I've never lived in Finland and I was born in Canada and lived in America for 37 years.

At March 13, 2006 9:57 a.m., Blogger swissmiss said...

We're also doing OPOL and I'm assuming it's working fine - he's not really talking yet. His first word was our cat's name, and I also assume it's because it's the same whoever says it so he hears it twice as often as any other word. I think fish/fisch will be one of his next words. Or the in-laws dog's name for the same reason as Cats name.

I've read that the different in onset of speaking between monolingual and bilingual kids is no greater than the difference between monolingual boys and monolingual girls (girls start about 4 weeks earlier). At any rate, as long as I know he can hear - which is obvious from the way he responds - I'm not going to think much about it until 18 months.

At March 14, 2006 5:39 a.m., Blogger Prairie Girl said...

You rock, Christina, seriously. Your children should be very proud of you.


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